Plone Software Ecology

Cosent collaborated with the Nottingham University Business School, to analyze the interaction between social network connections and technical structures in the development history of the open source Plone Content Management System.

Code Ecology

The Plone system comprises about one million lines of source code including the Zope application server, on which Plone is built. Understanding and managing a system of such magnitude requires a divide-and-conquer approach. The organizing pattern utilizes a generic framework calling specialized plugin components. Control resides with the framework, which determines execution flow, not with the plugin.

A Plone website is created by crafting an interrelated set of custom plugins that modulate visual appearance, define information schemata, and control policy behaviors to adapt the generic system to client-specific requirements. Integrators doing Plone customizations can draw upon an extensive library of plugin components providing specialized functionality which is not included in the core Plone framework “out-of-the-box”. Such generic components are created by other integrators, who encountered similar requirements and published their solutions to be re-used.

Underlying the custom and generic plugins, is the Plone core system, consisting of central infrastructure components augmented by dozens of specialized aspect providers. Plone itself plugs into the Zope framework, which also can be deconstructed as a set of core infrastructures augmented by specialized components. The whole of this component architecture is configured and integrated to act as a single, integrated system.

Corporate Ecology

Plone logo

The fall 2009 Plone conference saw an attendance of circa 400 Plone developers. A typical Plone developer is employed as such by an IT services company providing integration and customization services to customers. As of January 2010, the central directory of Plone integration providers listed 328 “Plone providers” in 60 countries worldwide. Plone developers are generally IT professionals, often formally trained in computer science, who are paid to work with Plone (for customers), and for whom working on Plone (for the community) is a normal application of their skills. Several well-established Plone integration providers subscribe to an informal policy of donating 10% of employee time to the Plone community in the form of open source software contributions.

The Plone CMS provides a bundle of features that is on par with commercially developed competitors. Plone can be downloaded for free, and provides prospective client organizations with a compelling value proposition: it offers both a feature-rich CMS environment “out of the box” as well as excellent customization options. The availability of a mature market of Plone integration providers, in combination with the open source aspect, is an important consideration for many organizations that want to minimize the risk of lock-in to a specific technology provider.

Technical / Social Network Analysis

Presented at the 2010 Americas Conference on Information Systems, our paper builds on a detailed analysis of the full software development history of Plone CMS and it's components, most notably the Zope application server which is bundled with Plone.

From 1997 onwards, we reconstructed technical dependency relationship networks between the various Zope/Plone code components on a month-by-month basis. In parallel, we derived social network structures from authorship networks.

Our results show, that in the beginning years social connection networks have greater explanatory power for predicting the evolution of the technical structures, than the other way around. From 2004 onwards, technical structures were dominant.


Current Plone CMS development prioritizes technical requirements and "best solutions" over social/political mechanisms. Not social cliques but engineering concerns shape the large-scale development effort. Plone developers already know this, of course, but our analysis of the complete commit histories confirms this intuition.


Kuk, G. & Stevens G. (2010). Corporatizing Open Source Software Innovation in the Plone Community. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Lima, Peru, August 12-15, 2010.

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